I haven't been to Moscow since last year.


Употребление времен

Упражнение 222

В- следующих предложениях измените время гла­гола на Present Perfect. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. The pupils are writing a dictation. 2. My friend is helping me to solve a difficult problem. 3. I am learning a poem. 4. She is telling them an interest­ing story. 5. Kate is sweeping the floor. 6. The wait­er is putting a bottle of lemonade in front of him. 7. I am eating my breakfast. 8. We are drinking water. 9. He is bringing them some meat and vege­tables. 10. You are putting the dishes on the table. 11. They are having tea. 12. She is taking the dirty plates from the table. 13. The children are putting on their coats. 14. Susan is making a new dress for her birthday party. 15. She is opening a box of chocolates. 16. I am buying milk for milk shakes. 17. James is ordering a bottle of apple juice. 18. We are looking for more CDs with good music. 19. Are you recording your favourite film on his video recorder? 20. I am translating a difficult article from German into Russian.

Упражнение 223

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в требу­ющейся форме, так чтобы получить Present Con­tinuous или Present Perfect.

1. What are you (to do) here? — I am (to write) a letter to my friends. 2. Who has (to write) this ar­ticle? 3. What language are you (to study)? 4. We have already (to learn) a lot of English words. 5. What is she (to teach) them? 6. Who has (to teach) you to do it? 7. He has just (to do) something for us. 8. Have you (to find) the book? 9. What are you

(to look) for? 10. What are you (to talk) about? 11. We have just (to talk) about it. 12. He has just (to say) something about it. 13. She is (to tell) them some interesting story. 14. He has (to tell) us noth­ing about it. 15. She has (to tell) them some stories about dogs. 16. We have (to have) two lessons to­day. 17. They are (to have) a meeting. 18. She has not (to speak) yet. 19. They have (to ask) me several questions. 20. He has already (to learn) the rule. 21. I am (to write) an exercise. 22. What is he (to do)? — He is (to read) a newspaper. 23. Have you (to read) any stories by Jack London? 24. I am (to answer) the telephone right now. 25. He has (to fix) his car and now he is (not to have) any trouble with the brakes anymore. 26. You have just (to hear) to­morrow's weather forecast.

Упражнение 224

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в требу­ющейся форме, так чтобы получить Present Con­tinuous или Present Perfect.

1. What's the matter? Why he (to stop)? 2. My cousin (to look) for a job, but he (not to find) a job yet. 3. It (to be) impossible for her to feel at home here. 4. What you (to study) now? 5. They just (to give) you a pay rise. 6. Sophie is busy. She (to knit) a sweater for her grandson. 7. You only (to have) a piece of cake? You (not to eat) much. 8. People (to plant) carrots and tomatoes now. 9. You (to go) to plant tomatoes this year? 10. Johnny, who finally (to find) a new job, (to give) a big party. 11. How long you (to be) sick? 12. You (to see) any good mov­ies recently? 13. What you (to look) forward to? 14. Nancy (to look) forward to this weekend. 15. She (to go) to read Shakespeare and she (not to go) to


Употребление времен 187

think about work. 16. Mike (to leave) for work yet?

17. They (to pay) their electric bill this month?

18. How long you (to know) each other? 19. Your car (to make) strange noises. Is anything wrong? 20. The boy (to do) his homework and (to take) a karate lesson now. 21. I (to have) dinner with my friends at the moment and I am very happy to see them again. 22. Jay never (to travel) overseas. 23. We always (to have) a dog and a cat. We love pets. 24. Larry never (to own) a sports car.

Упражнение 225

Переведите на английский язык, употребляя гла­голы в Present Perfect или Present Continuous.

1. Она все еще печатает свою статью. 2. Мы ее давно не видели. 3. Бабушка с дедушкой уже на­вестили своих внуков. 4. Сейчас они сидят в гос­тиной и разговаривают о своей поездке. 5. Ты ког­да-нибудь был в Африке? 6. Он все сделал для нее. Теперь он еще собирается купить ей дом. 7. Кон­церт еще не начался, и мы сидим в зале и обсуж­даем свои проблемы. 8. Подожди меня! Я не взя­ла деньги. 9. Я только что позавтракал. 10. Он уже позавтракал. 11. Мы еще не завтракали. 12. Они все еще пьют чай в столовой. 13. Я уже сделал свои уроки. 14. Он все еще делает свои уроки. 15. У нас сегодня было три урока. 16. У них только что было собрание. 17. Она еще не читала этой книги. 18. Она все еще читает. 19. Кто это написал? 20. Что вы ему написали? 21. Я только что была у зубного врача и чувствую себя намного лучше. 22. Он говорит неправду. Он не сделал уроки. 23. По­чему он не обедает? — Он все еще разговаривает со своим другом по телефону. 24. Куда исчезла эта ленивая кошка? — Она вон там, спит перед ками­ном.

Сравните употребление Present Perfect и Past Simple

Упражнение 226

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.

1. Helen speaks French so well because she (to live) in France. 2. She (to live) there last year. 3. The rain (to stop) and the sun is shining in the sky again. 4. The rain (to stop) half an hour ago. 5. Mary (to buy) a new hat. 6. I (to buy) a pair of gloves yesterday. 7. The wind (to blow) off the man's hat, and he cannot catch it. 8. The weather (to change), and we can go for a walk. 9. The wind (to change) in the morning. 10. We (to travel) around Europe last year. 11. My father knows so much be­cause he (to travel) a lot. 12. I (to see) Pete today. 13. She (to see) this film last Sunday. 14. Alex (to meet) his friend two hours ago. 15.1 just (to meet) our teacher. 16. The children already (to decide) what to do with the books. 17. Yesterday they (to decide) to help their grandmother. 18. I (not to see) you for a long time. I (to see) you in town two or three days ago, but you (not to see) me. I (to be) on a bus.

Упражнение 227

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.

1. Last night I (to feel) tired and (to go) to bed very early. 2. Where you (to spend) your holidays?

3. You ever (to spend) your holidays in the Crimea?

4. While travelling in the Crimea I (to meet) your friend. 5. I never (to visit) that place. 6. He (to vis­it) that place last year. 7.1 just (to get) a letter from


Употребление времен

Тот. 8. You (to take) any photographs while trave­lling .in the south? 9. He (to be) abroad five years ago. 10. You (to be) in the Caucasus last year? 11. They (to leave) England when he (to be) still a child. 12. He (not yet to come) back. 13. He (to go) already? 14. When you (to see) him last? 15. I (not to see) him for ages. 16. His health (to improve) greatly since I (to see) him last. 17. You (to pass) your driving test yet? — Yes, I (to pass) it in May, but I (not to buy) a car yet. 18. He already (to move). He (to find) a nice flat before Christmas and he (to be) there two years.

Упражнение 228

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.

1. I (not yet to eat) today. 2. He (not to eat) yes­terday. 3. You (to play) the piano yesterday? 4. You (to play) the piano today? 5. What you (to prepare) for today? 6. Look at this birdhouse. Mike (to make) it himself. He (to make) it last Sunday. 7. Where you (to put) my pen? I cannot find it. 8. You (to see) Mary today? 9. When you (to see) Mary? — I (to see) her last week. 10. Your mother (to promise) to take you to the theatre? 11. Look at my new dress! I (to make) it myself. 12. He is not at school today, he (to fall) ill. — When he (to fall) ill? — He (to fall) ill yesterday. 13. I already (to do) my homework. Now I can go for a walk. 14. I (to do) my homework yesterday. 15. He just (to come) home. 16. He (to come) home a minute ago. 17. Nick (to play) foot­ball yesterday. 18. She already (to come) from school. Now she is doing her homework. 19. I (to read) this book last year. 20. I (to read) this book this year. 21. I never (to be) to Washington. 22. You ever (to be) to New York? 23. You ever (to see) the eruption of a volcano? 24. I (to invite) Linda to the party. —

When you (to see) her? — I (not to see) her for ages. I (to call) her an hour ago.

Упражнение 229

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.

1. She just (to go) out. 2. She (to leave) the room a moment ago. 3. We (not yet to solve) the problem. 4. When it all (to happen)? 5. The morning was cold and rainy, but since ten o'clock the weather (to change) and now the sun is shining brightly. 6. Show me the dress which you (to make). 7. Oh, how dark it is! A large black cloud (to cover) the sky. I think it will start raining in a few minutes. 8. Oh, close the window! Look, all my papers (to fall) on the floor because of the wind. 9. When you (to open) the win­dow? — I (to open) it ten minutes ago. 10. The sun (not to rise) yet, but the sky in the east is getting lighter every minute. 11. I (to see) you walking along the street the other day with a heavy bag. 12. I (not to read) the newspaper today. 13. It is very late, and trams (to stop) running: we must find a taxi to get home. 14. How many times you (to be) to St. Peters­burg? 15. At last I (to translate) this article: now I shall have a little rest. 16. We (to go) to the coun­try yesterday, but the rain (to spoil) all the plea­sure. 17. My watch was going in the morning, but now it (to stop). 18. The lecture (not yet to begin) and the students are talking in the classroom.

Упражнение 230

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.

1. It (to be) very cold yesterday. 2. When you (to meet) him? 3. I (not to see) him since 1997. 4. How


Употребление времен

many mushrooms you (to gather)? 5. Where you (to put) the newspaper? I want to read it, but cannot find it anywhere. 6. The new school (to begin) work­ing last year. 7. At last I (to do) all my homework: now I shall go out. 8. The building of the house (to begin) early in April. 9. The rain (to stop) but a cold wind is still blowing. 10. We already (to solve) the problem. 11. He (to come) a moment ago. 12. I nev­er (to speak) to him. 13. He just (to finish) his work. 14. You (to make) any spelling mistakes in your dic­tation? 15. What books you (to read) when you (to live) in the country? 16. They (not yet to come) from the south. 17. He (to be) ill last week, but now he (to recover). 18. If everybody (to read) this new nov­el, let's discuss it. 19. You (to book) tickets? — Yes, I ... . I (to book) them several days ago. 20. I can hardly recognize you. I (not to see) you since you (to leave) for Moscow. And you (to change) so much.

21. You (to read) all the books on this shelf?

22. I (not to see) my cousin since last year. 23. Why
you (to put) these things in the wrong place?
24. Why you (to leave) the door open? You will catch
cold sitting in the draught. 25. "We (not to meet)
for such a long time!" said my friend. "Yes, indeed,"
I answered, "and we both (to grow)."

Сравните употребление Present Perfect, Present Continuous и Past Simple

Упражнение 231

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect, Present Continuous, Present Simple или Past Simple.

1. What you (to do) here at such a late hour? You (to write) your composition? — No, I (to write) it

already. I (to work) at my report. — And when you (to write) your composition? — I (to finish) it two days ago. 2. I say, Tom, let's have dinner. — No, thank you, I already (to have) dinner. 3. What the weather (to be) like? It still (to rain)? — No, it (to stop) raining. 4. Please give me a pencil, I (to lose) mine. 5. I (not to meet) Peter since Monday. 6. Nina just (to finish) work. 7. Where Sergei (to be)? — He (to go) home. He (to leave) the room a minute ago. 8. What you (to read) now? — I (to read) "Jane Eyre" by Charlotte Bronte. 9. They (to read) "Ivanhoe" by Walter Scott a month ago. What about you? You (to read) "Ivanhoe"? 10. My watch (to stop). There (to be) something wrong with it. 11. You (to see) Jack today? — Yes, I (to see) him at the institute. 12. You (to hear) the new symphony by M.? — Yes, I ... . — When you (to hear) it? — I (to hear) it last Sunday. 13. You (to change) so much. Anything (to happen)?

Сравните употребление

Present Perfect, Present Continuous,

Past Simple и Past Continuous

Упражнение 232

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect, Present Simple, Present Continuous, Past Simple или Past Continuous.

1. With whom you (to discuss) this question yes­terday? 2. I (to see) this film this week. I like it very much. 3. When I (to enter) the kitchen, I (to see) that my mother (to stand) at the table and (to cut) some cabbage. She (to cook) dinner. 4. As soon as I (to hear) a cry, I (to run) out of the room and (to see) that a child (to lie) on the ground and (to cry). "What (to happen)? Why you (to cry)? You (to hurt) yourself?" I asked. 5. They (to go) to the Hermitage


Употребление времен

last week. 6. They (to be) to the Hermitage twice this week. 7. After school yesterday he (to come) home, (to have) dinner, (to read) an article from the latest magazine and (to begin) doing his homework.

8. When your friend (to return) from the south? — She (to return) yesterday. — You (to go) to the sta­tion to meet her? — No, I ..., I (to be) too busy.

9. Your brother (to return) from the north? — Yes, he (to come) a few days ago. 10. You (to be) to the Crimea? When you (to be) there? — I (to be) there in 2005. 11. Where (to be) your brother? — He just (to come) home. He (to take) a shower in the bath­room now. 12. As soon as I (to see) him, I (to under­stand) that he (to work) hard. He (to write) some­thing and (not to notice) anything. 13. When I (to come) home yesterday, the children (to run) and (to sing) merrily. "We (to learn) a new song!" they cried. 14. When the young man (to enter) the room, she (to look) at him in surprise. "What you (to want) to tell me?" she (to say). "Why you (to come)?" 15. It (to rain) hard when I (to leave) home yesterday, so I (to return), (to put) on my raincoat and (to start) again. 16. You (to work) right now? — Yes, I (to prepare) for the English exams. 17. Have a look! That (to be) the Golden Gate Bridge on your left. — Oh, it (to be) beautiful. I just (to take) a picture of it. 18. Where you (to learn) the news? 19. They al­ready (to think) of everything? They (to buy) a lot of food? — Yes, Mark just (to order) ten bottles of Coke and four kinds of mineral water. He (to men­tion) peanuts, but he (not to order) any. He (to think) of tea and fancy cakes. The shop (to charge) every­thing to Mark's credit card. 20. Why you (to shiver)? — I (to shiver) because I (to be) cold. 21.1 (to sprain) my ankle again. 22. A world-famous violinist (to play) on tonight's concert. 23. The children (to play) with their train set the whole evening yesterday.

Спряжение глагола to write(писать)
в Past Perfect Tense (предпрошедшее время)
1 had written 1 had not written
He had written He had not written
She had written She had not written
It had written It had not written
We had written We had not written
You had written You had not written
They had written They had not written
Had 1 written? Yes, 1 had. No, 1 hadn't.
Had he written? Yes, he had. No, he hadn't.
Hadshe written? Yes, she had. No,she hadn't.
Had it written? Yes, it had. No, it hadn't.
Had we written? Yes, we had. No, we hadn't.
Hadyou written? Yes, you had. No,you hadn't.
Hadthey written? Yes, they had. No,they hadn't.

Сравните употребление Past Simple и Past Perfect

Упражнение 233

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple или Past Perfect.

1. Tom (to return) from the cinema at five o'clock.

2. Tom (to return) from the cinema by five o'clock.

3. I (to finish) my homework at seven o'clock.

4. I (to finish) my homework by seven o'clock. 5. He (to think) that he (to lose) the money. 6. Ann (to tell) me that she (to see) an interesting film. 7. When I (to come) home, mother already (to cook) dinner. 8. When father (to return) from work, we already (to do) our homework. 9. When the teacher (to en-

7 Ю.Голицынский


Употребление времен

ter) the classroom, the pupils already (to open) their books. 10. Kate (to give) me the book which she (to buy) the day before. 11. Nick (to show) the teacher the picture which he (to draw). 12. The boy (to give) the goats the grass which he (to bring) from the field. 13. Mother (to see) that Nick (not to wash) his hands. 14. The teacher (to understand) that Lena (not to do) her homework. 15. I (to know) that my friend (not yet to come). 16. When I (to wake) up yesterday, father already (to go) to work. 17. Nick (to think) that his father (not yet to come) home. 18. Mary (to tell) us that she (to cook) a good din­ner. 19. Yesterday I (to find) the book which I (to lose) in summer. 20. When we (to come) to the sta­tion, the train already (to leave).

Упражнение 234

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple или Past Perfect.

1. By two o'clock the teacher (to examine) all the students. 2. On my way to school I (to remember) that I (to leave) my report at home. 3. All my friends (to be) glad to hear that I (to pass) all the examina­tions successfully. 4. Poor Oliver (to lie) unconscious on the spot where Sikes (to leave) him. 5. He (to open) his eyes, (to look) around and (to try) to re­member what (to happen) to him. 6. All the passen­gers (to see) at once that the old man (to travel) a great deal in his life. 7. By the time we (to come) to see him, he (to return) home. 8. During the holi­days my friend (to visit) the village where he (to live) in his childhood. 9. When they (to enter) the hall, the performance already (to begin). 10. When I came home, my mother (to tell) me that she (to receive) a letter from grandfather. 11. Where you (to work) before you (to enter) the institute? 12. He (to study)

French before he (to enter) the university. 13. Lanny (to say) that he (to get) his education in Cape Town. 14. The boy (to want) to act the main part in the play because he (to organize) the theatre. 15. Lanny (not to know) who (to attack) him in the darkness. 16. The girl (to be) glad that she (to find) a seat near the win­dow. 17. Suddenly he (to remember) that he (not to ring) her up in the morning. 18. By the time the train (to reach) the city, he (to make) friends with many passengers. 19. When my uncle (to leave), he (to hur­ry) to the station to book a ticket. 20. She (to think) that Gert and Lanny (to quarrel).

Сравните употребление Past Simple, Past Continuous и Past Perfect

Упражнение 235

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple, Past Continuous u Past Perfect.

1. By eight o'clock yesterday I (to do) my home­work and at eight I (to play) the piano. 2. By six o'clock father (to come) home and at six he (to have) dinner. 3. By nine o'clock yesterday grandmother (to wash) the dishes and at nine she (to watch) TV. 4. When I (to meet) Tom, he (to eat) an ice cream which he (to buy) at the corner of the street. 5. When father (to come) home, we (to cook) the mushrooms which we (to gather) in the wood. 6. When I (to see) Ann, she (to sort) the flowers which she (to pick) in the field. 7. When I (to come) home yesterday, I (to see) that my little brother (to break) my pen and (to play) with its pieces. 8. When I (to open) the door of the classroom, I (to see) that the teacher already (to come) and the pupils (to write) a dictation. 9. When I (to come) home, my sister (to read) a book which she (to bring) from the library. 10. When mother (to


Употребление времен

come) home, the children (to eat) the soup which she (to cook) in the morning. 11. When I (to ring) up Mike, he still (to learn) the poem which he (to be­gin) learning at school. 12. When I (to look) out of the window, the children (to play) with a ball which Pete (to bring) from home. 13. By ten o'clock the children (to settle) comfortably on the sofa and at ten they (to watch) a film on TV.

Упражнение 236

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple, Past Continuous u Past Perfect.

Last night we (to go) to a football match. We (to take) a bus. The bus (to be) overcrowded as many people (to want) to see the match. We (to get) off the bus and (to go) in the direction of the stadium. While we (to cross) the road, I (to see) Victor. He (to stand) at the corner. He said he (to wait) for his friend who (to come) to St. Petersburg the day be­fore and (to wish) to see the new stadium. A man (to come) up to me and asked if I (to have) a spare tick­et for the match. Victor told us that two boys just (to ask) him whether he (to have) a spare ticket. We (to enter) the stadium just as the football players (to come) out on to the field. At the entrance to the sta­dium we (to meet) Sergei. He (to show) us to our seats and (to ask) me if I (to play) football in my childhood. We (to agree) to meet in the snack bar during the interval.

Упражнение 237

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple, Past Continuous u Past Perfect.

1. There (to be) two men in the room. One of them (to write) something while the other (to read) a news-

paper. 2. He (not to tell) me that he (to receive) a telegram from her. 3. I (to ask) him if he (to know) where she (to live). I (to say) I (not to know) her ad­dress. 4. He (to ask) me if I (can) give him your ad­dress. 5. She (to say) that he (to give) her the wrong address. 6. I (to ask) him where he (to put) my let­ter. 7. He (to tell) us that they (to spend) all the money. 8. I (to sit) in an armchair and (to think) of my coming trip across the North Sea when the door suddenly (to open) and an old friend of mine whom I (not to see) for a very long time (to enter) the room. 9. She (to come) to see us just at the time when we (to have) dinner. It (to be) the first time I (to see) her. 10. I (to see) him just as he (to leave) the hotel. 11. I (not to see) him before we (to meet) at the con­cert. 12. He (to leave) the house before I (to have) time to ask him anything. 13. After spending sever­al days in Paris he (to feel) lonely and (to want) to return home. 14.1 (to think) he already (to go) home. 15. I (to find) the old man in the garden. He (to talk) to some children who (to stand) around listening to him. 16. He (to speak) a language we never (to hear) before. 17. He (to tell) me he (to learn) it from the newspaper. 18. He (to enter) the room, (to take) something from the desk and (to go) out.

Упражнение 238

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple, Past Continuous u Past Perfect.

1. I (to return) to the hotel only late at night as I (to lose) my way in the fog. When I (to come) up to my room, I (to see) Pete who (to stand) at the door of the room. He (to wait) for me as he (to lose) his key and could not get in. 2. When I (to wake) up, it (to be) already ten o'clock. I (to call) my brother. Nobody (to answer). He already (to leave). 3. I (to


Употребление времен

go) up to the open window. The rain (to stop) and the sun (to shine) brightly. The birds in the garden (to sing). The morning (to be) fine. 4. When the rain (to stop) I (to look) out of the window and (to see) John who (to stand) under a tree waiting for me. 5. When I called at his house, they (to tell) me that he (to leave) an hour before. 6. When I came to the station, I (not to find) my friend there as I (to be) five minutes late and the train (to leave). 7. He (to want) to visit the place where he (to live) in his child­hood. 8. The telegram (to come) some minutes after he (to leave). 9. She (to look) very tired as she (to work) hard.